Lin Engineering Support

If you are unable to find the answers in our Frequently Asked Questions please check our forum or feel free to contact us at support@linengineering.com.

What is the difference between Unipolar and Bipolar motors?

A Unipolar motor has 6 or 8 leads and each winding is made up of two coils with a center tap. Only one coil is used at a time, as each coil is reserved for a different motor direction. To reverse the motor direction, the wiring is reversed instead of the input current direction. A Bipolar motor has 4,6, or 8 leads, and has one winding per phase. To reverse the motor direction, the input current direction must be reversed. It generates more torque than a Unipolar motor because it utilizes 100% of it’s windings.





What is the difference between a closed loop stepper motor controller and an open loop stepper motor controller?

A closed loop controller provides feedback from the motor response after a command is issued to ensure that the motor conducts the desired response, and an open loop controller issues commands with no feedback.Closed_loop_position


Can I run a traditional six lead motor as a bipolar winding configuration?

Yes, a traditional six lead motor can be used as a bipolar motor depending on your requirements.
A bipolar driver will have four outputs for the phase wires. Only four lead wires from the six lead wired motor will be used.

Depending on your motor performance requirements, you can connect the motor to run in “half coil” or “series”. Series can be achieved by connecting A to Abar then B to Bbar from the motor circuit to your bipolar driver.

When running in series connection, the rated current of the unipolar motor must be converted to series rated current by multiplying the unipolar rated current by a factor of 0.7
Series Rated Current = Unipolar Rated Current * 0.7.

For half coil connection; A to ANC on Phase A will be used to replace A and Abar, and then B to BNC on Phase B to replace B and Bbar; Current input will remain the same.

Advisory: Whether half coil or series connection is used, it is recommended to take proper precaution to insulate the other two lead wires that are not being used.



My stepper motor is running hot to the touch, is there something wrong?

Our stepper motors are rated for a case temperature of 80 degrees C, which will be hot to the touch, but will not hurt the motor.


When should I use microstepping?

Microstepping increases a motor’s step resolution, and is typically used to allow a motor to run more smoothly and with less noise while not increasing step accuracy.


How much torque safety margin should I use when sizing a motor?

We recommend a torque safety margin of at least 30%.


What programmability features?

Our controllers are programmable through our LinCommand downloadable program. Example programs can be found on the website at www.linengineering.com/resources/download.aspx under the “Manual” section.


Environmental considerations?

Lin Engineering offers IP rated motors, vacuum rated motors, and extreme temperature motors for various different motor environments. We also have our Green Motor line, which runs cooler, uses less energy, and is more environmentally friendly.


Wiring and connection layouts?

There are various wiring and connection layouts that are available on the website: www.linengineering.com/resources/wiring_connections.aspx


Do I need a controller to run the motor?

Step motors need a step motor driver to operate. The driver will require a pulsed signal for motion and speed control. This source is typically supplied by a programmable controller. You can use other sources such as a function generator to provide this signal. Lin Engineering offers drivers and driver/controllers that include a programmable controller in one unit.



Why is step motor size important?

Step motor size usually corresponds with how much torque a motor can output, because a larger motor has room for more turns per coil and therefore more torque. Also, a larger motor generally has more inertia for a closer motor to load match with larger inertia loads.


How can an encoder be used to determine position and speed?

Step motor size usually corresponds with how much torque a motor can output, because a larger motor has room for more turns per coil and therefore more torque. Also, a larger motor generally has more inertia for a closer motor to load match with larger inertia loads.


Click here for more encoder information


While increasing speed, why do step motors lose torque?

When the motor speed increases, each coil has less time to fill with charge before the current is moved to the next coil. The inductance from the coils creates a back emf and an opposing current to the incoming current trying to fill the coils. Therefore, the current is slowed because inductance, and the faster the current pulses, the less each coil is able to charge. Therefore the torque decreases as the motor speed increases because torque is based off of the amount of charge in each coil.

4118M-01 Torque Curves


Why does increasing the voltage increase the torque if step motors are not voltage driven?

Voltage pushes the current through the wire, and a higher voltage pushes the current through faster. This is important at high speeds because the current can enter the windings faster and can charge more completely before the current pulse is moved to the next coil.



What temperatures are step motors able to run at?

Our standard motors are rated for an outer temperature of -20 degrees C to 80 degrees C. As long as the operating environment does not cause the motor to exceed these limits, the motor should have no problems. Lin motors can also be modified to run at more extreme temperatures, at a range from -50 degrees C to 180 degrees C.


Is it possible to get more torque by running the step motor at a higher rated current?

An increase in current does increase the torque of the motor by the same multiplier. Increasing current generally helps more at lower speeds, as shown in the torque curve below. However, if a motor is run at a current above the rated current, the motor can burn out and be permanently damaged.



What is the difference between 4, 6, and 8 leads?

A motor with 4 leads is either has a bipolar half-coil winding, or can be wired in parallel or series inside the motor. A motor with 6 leads is typically a unipolar motor where two of the leads are the center taps for the two coils. A motor with 6 leads can also be wired in series by not using the center taps, or can be wired in a bipolar half-coil winding by using either lead in each phase with the center tap. A motor with eight leads can be wound in parallel, series, or in unipolar by connecting the two inner leads from each pole together and creating the center taps.



What do brakes do on a stepper motor?

Brakes hold the motor shaft in place by locking its position around the motor shaft. A brake cannot be used to slow the motor shaft.


What is the difference between a round and a square stepper motor?

Our round motors have a lower inertia and operate better at higher speeds. Our square motors have higher inertia, provide more torque and operate well at low to mid speeds.

5618 High Torque Stepper Motor









• Ideal for high speed applications
• Cost Effective
• Up to175 oz-in (1.24 N-m) Holding Torque









• High Torque
• Cost Effective
• Up to 305 oz-in (2.16 N-m) Holding Torque


Are there ways to keep the motor temperature down?

You can keep the motor temperature down by reducing the input current, because the heat generation is partly due to the Copper power losses in the wire. The Copper losses are equal to the wire resistance multiplied by the current squared. Mounting the motor to a surface that will provide good heat sinking can help keep temperature down. Adding a fan may also help cool the motor in some environments.


Is there any way to supress vibration during operation?

You can supress vibration by adusting the operating current, using microstepping, or using Mechanical or Electrical damping.



Why does the motor move a little when the power is turned on?

The motor might move a little because when the power turns on, the rotor will move until it settles into a stable magnetic position. For a 1.8 degree motor, the rotor will move up to ± 1.8 degrees.


Is it all right to machine the motor shaft?

We do not recommend machining the motor shaft because it can impact the bearings and can lower performance by affecting shaft run out and perpendicularity. We offer numerous shaft customizations, so machining on your end is not necessary.


For more shaft options, please click here



How long can the motor's lead wires be extended?

Our standard lead wires are 12 inches long, however, Lin Engineering can modify the length of the lead wires depending on your application. However, added length increases resistance which can affect motor performance.


What is AWG?

AWG stands for American Wire Gauge, and set the standards for wire diameter. A higher AWG number corresponds to a smaller diameter wire.



Do you have any IP ratings for your motors?

Yes, we offer IP65 motors which are 100% dust resistant and protected against low pressure jets of water, and IPX7 motors, which are water submersible for up to 30 minutes.











• Dust Proof
• Withstands low pressure jets of water
• FDA approved coating











The Lin Engineering 5718 series step motors are now available with an IPX7 rating. The 5718 is a 1.8, NEMA size 23 stepper motor that has a MAX body length of 2.25″.


How do I check if my step motor has been shorted or burned?

When too much current or voltage is applied to a motor, the phases might be shorted. Use an ohmmeter to check the resistance of each phase. Check the resistance between Phase A and A Bar. Compare with the resistance between Phase B and B Bar. Be sure to check with the datasheet to ensure there is no more than a 10% difference.


How fast can I run my step motor?

Most step motors are designed for low speed (3000 rpm or less) operation. Once you get into higher speeds, BLDC or servo motors are typically used


How many steps per revolution does a 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8 degree motor have?

The number of steps per revolution is equal to 360 degrees divided by the step angle. Therefore: 0.45 degrees = 800 steps/revolution, 0.9 degrees = 400 steps/revolution, and 1.8 degrees = 200 steps/revolution.


Other than stepper motors, what else does Lin Engineering sell?

We sell motors with gearboxes, BLDC motors, dampers, RS485 converter interfaces, as well as encoders, drivers, controller/drivers, power supplies, and our Silverpak Line of integrated motors with controls and/or drives.


What does "maximizing torque at desired speed" mean?

Every step motor can be wound with more or less coils in order to change its performance characteristics. Thus, if a certain amount of torque is needed at at a certain speed, we can build a motor with the right number of coils in order to maximize your motor’s ability at that speed range. Most importantly, these customized windings come at no additional charge.


Which stepper motor is your most accurate motor?

Our most accurate motors are the 0.45 degree Size 23 High Accuracy Stepper Motors. Model Numbers for these begin with 5704.

5704 High Accuracy Stepper


Can I use LR drives or voltage drives?

Lin Engineering does not recommend L/R drives or voltage drives, as such drives provide constant voltage. Step motors generate heat during operation, this heat will increases the motor’s resistance. Any change or variation in the resistance of the motor will change the current supplied in a constant voltage drive system.


Should I use a 1.8 or 0.9 degree motor?

Step accuracy is the primary character of a step motor. Without step accuracy, the motor is useless. Based on motor manufacturing capability, step accuracy is rated at +/- 5% of the full step. That means a 1.8-degree motor would have step error of +/- 5.4 arc minutes, while 0.9-degree motor would have step error at +/- 2.7 arc minutes. this is because the motor step accuracy is determined by the torque stiffness, and the torque stiffness is determined by maximum holding torque and the number of rotor teeth.A 1.8-degree motor has a 50-tooth rotor and 0.9-degree motor has a 100-tooth rotor. With the same manufacturing capability, a 0.9-degree motor will have twice the step accuracy of a 1.8-degree motor.


How does heat dissapation relate to the current rating?

Step motor current rating is based on the heat dissipation of the motor and the heat capacity of the coil wire. One of the major causes of heat dissipation in a motor is the Copper loss of the wires. The Copper losses are equal to the resistance multiplied by the current squared, so when the current increases, the heat dissipation/Copper losses in the motor will increase. Therefore, the current rating of the motor must be low enough that it does not cause enough heat dissipation to heat the motor windings beyond their heat capacity, which would melt the insulation off of the wires and damage the windings.


What is holding torque vs dynamic torque?

Holding torque is the maximum restoring torque developed by the rotor when one or more phases of the motor are energized. The dynamic torque is called running torque or pullout torque. It varies at different speed by different driver technologies and power input. As a rule of thumb, the maximum dynamic torque is about 70% of the holding torque.


What is rated current with respect to peak current?

Rated current is the maximum RMS phase current for the motor that won’t damaging the windings at. Peak current refers to the amount of current the driver outputs. When using a 2 phase on driver that only does half or full stepping, the Rated current is the same as the Peak current. (Rated current = Peak Current).When using a driver capable of having 1 phase on at a time or capable of microstepping the definition of Peak current becomes 1.4 times the Rated current. Microstepping drivers are made differently in order to maximize the ability to drive the step motor. Therefore, step motors can handle up to it’s Rated current, multiplied by 1.4. (Peak Current = 1.4 x Rated Current). This will not damage the motor because the power output is more or less the same.Non-microstepping drivers: Peak Current = Rated current. Microstepping Drivers: Peak Current = 1.4 x Rated Current.



What are the advantages of using step motors?

1. Speed can be easily determined and controlled by remembering that speed equals steps per revolution divided by pulse rate.
2. A step motor can make fine incremental moves.
3. A step motor doesn’t require encoder feed back ( Open loop ) .
4. Fast acceleration capability
5. Non-cumulative positioning error
6. Excellent low speed/high torque characteristics without gear reduction
7. Holding torque of the step motor can be used to hold loads in stationary position without over heating.
8. A step motor can accurately go to a programmed position without feedback


What is the difference between "half-coil" and "full-coil"?

A “half-coil” motor is a six-lead (unipolar) motor being driven by a bipolar driver. Since bipolar motors only need four wires to run, there are options in connecting a six-lead wire to a bipolar drive. Typically, we refer to the six wires as A, A Bar, A Common, B, B Bar, B Common. Half-coil connection would be to use A, A Common, and B, B Common. (Or A Bar, A Common, and B Bar, B Common). To use”full-coil”, or also known as Series connection, you would use A, A Bar and B, B Bar. For full-coil the two common wires are ignored.

A Full-coil connection (or series) is ideal for lower speeds requiring more torque. Half-coil connection will give an overall amount of torque across a wider range of speeds.



What voltage should I use?

In order to get the maximum output from a motor for a given application, we have to maximize the torque at the operating speed. Therefore, selecting the right speed for the application is very important. Over 1000 pps full step is not desirable if the power supply voltage is less than 12V. High power supply voltage (> 24V) would be necessary if operating speed is selected over 4000 pps full step.


Will the step motor heat up if it stalls?

Stalling a motor will not cause it to heat up because a stepper motor does not draw any increased current while being in a stalled position.


How do you program the controllers?

There are manuals with instructions and sample programs for each of our controllers under the downloads tab after you select the controller on our website. You can select the desired controller from this link:




Can you use a step motor as a generator?

Yes. You can backdrive one step motor by coupling it to another step motor, and create a generator.


When should you use parallel or series windings?

Parallel winding should be used for a high speed and high torque application, and Series winding should be used to optimize torque at lower speeds.



How does torque relate to motor size?

A larger motor size usually corresponds to more turns per coil, increasing the Ampere-turns of the motor and therefore causing more torque. The stator of a larger motor has more room per pole to increase the number of turns per coil.


Why is the step motor skipping steps?

A step motor can skip steps due to high resonance, high inertia mismatch, or lack of torque.


What is the Lin Engineering standard part number system?



What is a brushless DC motor?

A brushless DC motor, or BLDC, is an electric motor with a three phase stator, and no rotor or stator teeth. It works similarly to a stepper motor, where changing current impulses cause rotor rotation, but the motor cannot stop at small intervals because there are no teeth to hold the motor in a precise position. BLDC motors are ideal for high speed high torque applications that do not require precision stopping and starting.


What range of wattages do BLDC motors cover?

The standard speed range for our BLDC motors is 2300 RPM to 4200 RPM.


Can BLDC motors be run as servo motors?

We do not recommend using BLDC motors as servo motors because BLDC’s run better at high speeds and cannot handle slow, precise movements. For an application requiring low speed and accurate positioning, we recommend using a stepper motor and an encoder


What types of magnets are used in the BLDC motors?

Our BLDC motors use Neodymium Iron Boron magnets, which are the strongest commercially available magnets.


What is the life expectancy of a BLDC motor?

The life expectancy of a BLDC motor depends on the bearing life, but our BLDC motors will meet the Lin Engineering standard of 20,000 hours before failure.


Do Hall sensors need to be used to drive a BLDC motor?

Hall sensors use feedback to tell the motor driver which phases to turn off and on, which is required for motor operation. However, an encoder can be used in place of a Hall sensor to provide this feedback, so technically a Hall sensor is not required if an encoder is used instead.



Can I run a BLDC off of a battery?

Yes a BLDC motor can run off a battery and a controller. Brushless motors use a DC powered controller, which produces an AC signal. This is not a sinusoidal signal, but a pulsed sequence used for commutation of the motor. The controllers DC power source can be either a battery, or a DC power supply.


Will a BLDC motor slow down when the load is increased?

Yes, the motor speed will always slow when the load is increased for an open loop feedback system. If you have closed loop feedback, the motor will NOT slow down only if the motor torque is high enough.


Is it possible to burn up a BLDC motor by giving it too much load?

No, a BLDC motor will only burn up if the motor current rating is exceeded.


When should you use a BLDC in place of a step motor?

BLDC motors are ideal for high speed high torque applications that do not require precision stopping and starting.



Can different voltages be applied other than the specific voltage?

Yes, however there are speed limits on the motor bearings, and increasing the voltage too much can cause the motor speed to exceed the bearing speed rating.

BLDC_Increasing Voltage


What is stall torque?

Stall torque is also called dynamic torque, and it is the maximum torque that can be applied to a motor before it stalls or loses synchronization. This is the torque represented on a torque-speed curve.


What is rated torque?

The rated torque is the torque that the motor generates continuously at its rated voltage and its rated frequency.


What is peak torque?

How much torque the motor can operate at for a brief moment of time before the motor burns out.


What is the difference between the Silverpak C and the Silverpak D?

The SilverpakD’s are our 4118 and 5718 series motors integrated with our R208 and R525 drivers. These have drivers only, and require a pulse generator in order to run. The SilverpakC’s are our 4118 and 5718 series motors integrated with our R256 and R356 driver/controllers. Since these include a driver and controller, they can be controlled by a PC through our USB485 converter or our RS485 to RS232 converter. The SilverpakC’s can also be programmed to operate alone without a PC connection.


Why can I not type anything in HyperTerminal when using the SilverpakC, but the motor is able to spin?

1. If using Windows 98, HyperTerminal has bugs which is an issue with Microsoft. You won’t be able to see what you’re typing in, but it still works. Try power recycling and closing out HT, then opening it back up.

2. If not Windows 98, re-check the ASCII settings in HyperTerminal. Go to File –> Properties –> Settings –> ASCII setup. Checkbox two items: Send line ends with line feeds, and Echo typed characters locally.

3. Check your cables. Try a different serial cable from your PC to the converter card.

4. You may want to try our new “LinCommand” software which is available for download from our website.


Driving a Relay does not work for the Silverpak 17C.

1. Take the I/O Pin 8 as an example. First check to make sure the controller is working. Measure with a voltmeter across Pin 8 and Ground Pin6. it should read 4.45V. Now program a /1J1R. Voltmeter should read 4.26mV. And J0 will pull it back up to 4.45V.

2. Be aware that the controller is current sinking, not sourcing. So, use an open collector pull-down style connection. Connect Pin 8 to the negative of the relay. Then use an external 5VDC supply. Positive of 5V supply goes to + of Relay, and Negative goes to GND.

3. If that doesn’t work, try placing a resistor in series with the inputs of the relay. Here, you can put + of relay to Pin 8, and – of relay to GND Pin 6. Then one side of the resistor will connect to Pin 8, the other side of the resistor will connect to the + line of the relay.


The SilverpakC has stopped moving (automatic shutdown due to high heat)

When running the unit at a high current or for long periods of time, you may be tripping the thermal resettable fuse on the board. This fuse will trip if the board gets hot because there is inadequate heatsinking.Try using a lower current setting, if possible, or have a fan blowing towards the motor to decrease the heating of the controller chips.


In C, C++, LABView, VB, I receive garbled text when using Silverpak C.

While sending commands it is only necessary to send a carriage return (0x0d). Sometimes sending a line feed (0x0a) in addition to the carriage return will have the controller spit back a garbled message.
When you transmit a message to the controller, this is what it will answer with:
– Line sync character (receiver should ignore this character)
– Start of transmition
– Address of who the message is for in this case, the master is address 0
– Status of unit. (0=No error, 1=Initialization error, 2=Bad Command, 3=Operand out of range)
possible message Position, speeds, etc.
– End of text character
– Carriage return
– Line feed
– Line sync character (sometimes cut off)


How much memory does the SilverpakC have?

The amount of memory per string is 256 characters and there are 16 strings. 1 Character occupies 1 Bytes. Therefore, there is approx. 4 kBytes for each program (you can store up to 16 different programs)


How many steppers can the converter card handle along the bus line?

The converter card can handle up to 16 SilverpakC motors.


How do you know if the command went through when using the Silverpak C?

In HyperTerminal, you’ll see 4 responses:
/o@o – Command OK
/o’o – Command is terminated
/obo – Bad command
/oco – Command out of range
With a PLC, the controller will send a Line Feed to assure that the command is finished being sent from PC to controller


Homing sensor is not working properly for the Silverpak 17C

1. Make sure a low signal is something that is 0.8V or less, and a high value is 2.4V or more (usually 5V is common).

2. Is the sensor an optical sensor? It must be an opto sensor in order for it to work. Usually It’s a 4 wire device – gnd, gnd, Line, LED line. Pins 7 and 9 are for the opto sensor.

3. If you want to use a sensor, just connect it to one of the I/O’s. Take Pin 5 as an example. When the sensor is cut, this device should send a high signal to Pin 5. You can program the SilverpakC to wait until it sees a high signal on Pin 5. Pin 5 is the switch closure to ground, so the following program will work only with Pin 5:

P0 – Move infinitely
H14 – Halt when there is a high signal ‘1’ on input 4 (Pin5)


SilverpakC is not communicating with the PC. What are the steps to check my connection?

If using the USB485 converter card, unistall USB485 driver, reboot computer, downlaod driver from Lin Engineering website, intall new driver.

The driver files can be found here under the “Downloads” tab: USB485

To verify your connections, refer to pages 8 – 10 of the Silverpak 17C-CE User Maual.

Or, pages 8 – 11 of the Silverpak 23C CE User Manual.

Verify that the power is off to avoid damage before checking connections.


The SilverpakC "D command" does not work properly.

1. Use the “P command” along with the “F1″(reverse) command
2. If you are already at Zero position, then you cannot move in the negative position anymore. D moves the motor backwards, but only if you’ve already gone forwards. (Ex: If you are at position 1000, and you issue a D2000 command, the controller won’t do anything. Instead, you need to program that your current position is 2000 steps away from home: /1z2000D2000R. Then D will work.


Using a PLC to communicate with the SilverpakC, what commands need to follow?

After the command, you need to issue a carriage return and linefeed. Example: send a /1A1000R move. After the R, send a 0x0d in hex. Or, in LABView, send a \r. In Visual Basic, send a \n.


Using the Silverpak 17C, which switch inputs correspond to which Pin#?

Switch 1 = Pin 2, Switch 2 = Pin 8, Switch 3 = Pin 7, Switch 4 = Pin 5

1 Red +V (Main Power In)
2 Black I/O 1
3 Brown RS485B (-)
4 Black/White RS485A (+)
5 Orange Switch Closure to GND (IN) 4
6 Green GND (-V of main pwr in)
7 White Opto Sensor Phototransistor (IN) 3
8 Blue I/O 2
9 Yellow Opto Sensor LED (Power Out)


What are the default settings for the SilverpakC?

Running Current (m) 30% of 2.0 Amps
Holding Current (h) 10% of max current of 2 Amps
Step Resolution (j) 256x
Top Velocity (V) 305175 pps (microsteps/sec)
Acceleration (L) L=1000, 6103500 usteps/sec^2
Microstep smoothness (o) 1500
Outputs (J) both are turned off, J0
Baud Rate 9600 bps


What is the minimum and maximum voltage that the RS485 to RS232 Converter card can handle?

The minimum voltage is 7VDC and the maximum voltage is 40VDC

RS485 to RS232 Converter card


When using SilverpakC, why can I only get the stepper motor to move one time (using A1000R)?

Remember that ‘A’ is to move the motor in Absolute position. After issuing an A1000R command, the controller is now at position 1000. If you issue ‘A1000R’ again, the motor will not move anywhere because it is already at position 1000. In order to move it another 1000 steps, you must program ‘A2000R’. Or, use the incremental command ‘P1000R’.


What is the difference between the R701 and R710 drivers?

Both drivers always output 10x microstepping, but the R710 has a built in step pulse multiplier. If the multiplier jumper is set to “Full Step Mode”, the incoming pulses will be multiplied by 10. This is to allow for customers already using Full Step in their system, but if they now wish to change their system to accommodate for microstepping, using the R710 will be easy and they won’t have to reprogram all of the speeds. The R710 will automatically multiply the step pulses to receive the same speeds, but now it is microstepping.



What is the difference between Unipolar and Bipolar drivers?

A Unipolar driver’s output current direction cannot be changed. There are two sets of the coils for each phase in a unipolar wired motor, and only one set of the coils can be energized at a time. Each coil represents one phase. Therefore, only 50% of the winding is utilized in the unipolar drive. Therefore, all of the windings are utilized because the same coil is used for forward and backward current direction. The motor wiring does not have to be changed to change the direction of a motor using a bipolar driver.


Do you offer a replacement for the discontinued IMS/Schneider IM483 driver?

The R325P driver is a great replacement for the IM483 and has many added features and benefits such as,

• Lower Cost
• Improved Accuracy & Resonance with Pole Damping Technology
• Better Lead Time
• Same Mounting Pattern

For more information, click here.


Is there a warranty for Lin Engineering Stepper Motors?

For Lin Engineering Stepper Motors warranty, please click here


What certifications does Lin Engineering have?

Quality Done Right
Lin Engineering has a reputation for high quality products for good reason; our quality policy is “Continuous Improvement” utilizing the 4.5 Sigma Way. Why does Lin Engineering’s quality consistently out perform the competition? Find out here

Our Certifications




How do I return a Lin Engineering Stepper Motor?

Having issues with your product? Easily request a RMA & get your application on the right track. Please click here